Cynoglossum virginianum - Banner
Image Information
Location: Searcy County, Arkansas
Month of Photograph: March
Distribution Map: Cynoglossum virginianum - Distribution Map Spacer
USDA, NRCS. 2012. The PLANTS Database (, 16 January 2012). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA. Spacer Guests can be assured that there is established evidence that this plant has been found in all of the green filled counties of Arkansas. However, the white filled counties should not be interpreted as counties in which this plant does not grow. They should instead be interpreted as counties which lack officially sanction evidence of the plants presence there.

Family: Boraginaceae

Flower, close

Cynoglossum virginianum - Flower Close "
Not all images on this page were photographed on the same day or at the same location. The precise location and date that specific photographs were taken can be obtained by email.
Cynoglossum virginianum - Flowers Flowers


Cynoglossum virginianum - Inflorescence Inflorescenmce
Cynoglossum virginianum - StemStem and Basal Leaves with petioles
Cynoglossum virginianum - Stem and Leaf Adaxial Cauline Leaf, adaxial and clasping (the leaf clasps the stem)
This plant has both basal leaves and cauline leaves. The basal leaves (see above) have stalks, that is, petioles while the cauline leaves have no petiole and attach tightly to the stem.
Cynoglossum virginianum - Leaf Trichomes Leaf, trichomes (hairs)


The hairs on the surface of the leaves of this plant are generally described as "densely pubescent with stiff, straight hairs". Others have called the leaves "rough-hairy". Still others use the word "scabrous" which essentially means "rough to the touch".

Gaining the ability to apply the various terms that botanists use to describe hairs on the surface of stems, leaves, sepals, etc. has been very difficult for me. Drawings just do not help much, and verbal descriptions are even worse. Pictures are not much better. To learn this tricky business, I have finally resorted to carefully observing the plant (sometimes with a hand lense) and feeling again and again of the plants surfaces, and finally looking at the literature to see which words botanists that I admire have used to describe the plant's hairs.

Cynoglossum virginianum - Basal Leaves Basal Leaves
"Basal leaves" are those that spring directly from the ground or, perhaps, from the absolute bottom of the stem. "Cauline leaves", on the other hand, are those that emerge from the stem a bit above the ground. (the Latin caulis = stem)
Cynoglossum virginianum - Leaf and Stem Clasping Leaf and Stem
Leaves are described as "sessile" when they have no stalk but attach immediately to the stem. Some leaves attach even more tightly to the stem by growing around the stem a bit. Those are referred to as "clasping the stem" as is the case here with Cynoglossum virginianum. There are still more extreme attachments of the leaves in which the stem appears to pierce the two opposite leaves when those leaves actually fuse together. Botanists describe those leaves as "perfoliate." (For "perfoliate" see Silphium perfoliatum.)
Cynoglossum virginianum - Whole PlantWhole Plant